Extension services for smallholders


Resource-poor small farmers need help, through effective extension, to adopt technologies to meet market needs profitably. This 13 page chapter describes current extension approaches as outdated and focused on major crops and on large farmers. However, the community participation model has been adopted by NGOs and rural support programs. Overseas trends include “soft” as well as technical skills, behavioural change, risk management, and integrating farmers with value chains. Overseas, services are also more inclusive of smallholders and women. Policymakers should recognise that (a) extension needs of all farmers are not identical; and (b) smallholders cannot engage with modern supply chains without the support of extension services. 2019