Women farmers not only play a significant role in the agricultural industry in PNG but are also key to PNG family livelihoods. The role is often concentrated in early stages of production, and they rarely participate in cash crop marketing and financial decision making. In addition, women often face significant constraints that further gender inequity such as low literacy, limited access to resources, limited access to finance, lack of understanding and access to markets, primary responsibility and burden for household labour, restrictions to mobility, and overall safety issues. Earlier research has shown that to promote gender equity and increase women’s economic empowerment an understanding of the different roles and input of women and men along the value chain and appropriate training needs to be embeddedin the family and community.

Gender equality or equality between women and men refers to the equal enjoyment by men and women of all ages of rights, socially valued goods, opportunities, resources and rewards. Gender equity refers to fair treatment for women and men according to their respective needs.